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全球大河僅三分之一可自由奔流

文章來源:科技日報 劉海英   發布時間:2019-05-10  【字號:     】  

  《自然》雜志上最新發表的一項研究顯示,世界上較長的246條河流中,目前僅有三分之一還能保持全程自由流動,越來越多的水壩和水庫正在減少健康河流為全人類提供的多種利益。

  這是科學家有史以來第一次對地球上河流自由流動的狀況進行評估。來自世界自然基金會(WWF)等機構的34名研究人員組成的國際團隊,利用衛星圖像和其他數據,對世界范圍內總流程達1200萬公里的河流的連通狀況進行了分析。他們發現,在全世界長度超過1000公里的246條河流中,僅有37%的河流還能不受阻礙地自由流動;在91條長度超過1000公里的入海河流中,只有21條還能保持從源頭到海洋的貫通。這些尚能自由流動的河流主要流經北極圈、亞馬遜和剛果盆地等偏遠地區;而在人口密集地區,只有伊洛瓦底江、薩爾溫江等少數大河還能自由流動。

  研究人員指出,全球河流形成了一個錯綜復雜的網絡,與土地、地下水和大氣有著重要聯系。自由流動的河流對人類和環境都很重要,不僅支撐淡水魚的繁衍,為數億人提供糧食安全保障,還能提供足夠多的沉積物,防止耕地流失,并維系豐富的生物多樣性。擾亂這些河流的連通性,往往會減少甚至消除其帶給人類和自然的各種好處。

  該研究還指出,水壩和水庫是全球河流連通性喪失的主要原因。目前全世界已建成的大型水壩有近6萬座,正在規劃或建造的大壩則超過3700座,這些人為設施讓許多江河無法自由奔流。此外,氣候變化也威脅著全球河流的健康,溫度上升已經影響到河流的流動模式、水質和生物多樣性。

  新研究提供了跟蹤自由流動河流狀況的數據和方法,有助于各國協調戰略,維護或恢復河流連通性。WWF科學家米歇爾·蒂米指出,目前許多國家致力于發展低碳經濟,迫切需要開發可再生能源,水電成為一個重要選擇,但考慮到河流及人類的可持續發展,規劃良好的風能和太陽能可能是更好的選擇。




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